Saturday, March 14, 2020

Gender Stereotypes on Television

Gender Stereotypes on Television Television advertisement perpetuates gender stereotypes through their advertising. This is through reinforcing the traditional gender roles assigned by the society. The traditional stereotypes about being a man is being business minded, tough, independent while being a woman means being passive, sensitive, and submissive, having beauty, elegance a good homemaker.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Gender Stereotypes on Television specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Television commercials are most likely to be run at the time when the advertisers think the target audience is watching television to sell their products. For instance, during daytime advertisers will run commercials about food, beauty products cleaning agents and so on in soap operas or dramas that have more women viewers than men viewers have. On the other hand, in sports programs commercials for things such as beer, vehicles and property are run because the a udience for such programs are mostly men. Gender stereotyping in television commercials is a topic that has generated a huge debate and it is an important topic to explore to find out how gender roles in voice-overs TV commercials and the type of products they are selling to the public are related. From many findings, it is clear that advertisers use gender to sell different products during different times in broadcasting. Many studies in content analysis have been done on television commercials. The studies have focused on gender stereotyping but many have ignored the economic motivation behind the stereotyping in commercials. Advertisers want to make most of their advertisement and run the ads when the target audience is likely to be watching certain television programs. For example during soap operas advertisers will run ads on things like diapers. This product is hardly seen during programs watched mostly by men for instance sporting programs. While some advertisers may not cons ider the age and sex of the audience some do so because it is cost effective as they are able to reach most people in the target group using one commercial (Craig 1). Gender roles stereotyping comes in when advertisers choose to run ads on products aimed at women during daytime. This is considered the best time to reach this target group, as most women are likely to be at home taking care of their children or just housekeeping. These young women are more likely to buy the products advertised than the older women who are largely ignored by the advertisements, as they are not considered as big buyers. During prime time, the advertisements changed and target women who usually work. To make the advertisement more economical; advertisers run ads that target a wider audience of both men and women. Thus during this time products that appeal to both gender are more likely to be advertised. During the weekend most television stations run sporting events, they are mainly targeted at men, and thus products aimed at men are advertised during these programs. Products such as cars, beer are advertised (Craig 1).Advertising Looking for essay on gender studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is also important to note that television programs are also gendered. There are programs created primarily with a specific gender in mind. During these programs, the advertisers get a good opportunity to sell their products to their target audience. The programs are made in such a way that they help to sell the products being advertised. This is achieved by portraying the characters in the programs with traits that are desirable to the target audience. This in turn makes the target audience desire those traits and thus are more likely to buy products advertised during such times (Craig 3). For example, men are portrayed as dominant, autonomous; in occupations that are prestigious on the other hand, women are shown as c aring, compliant or in domestic settings. Therefore, women will be shown in ads about domestic products while men will often advertise outdoor products or business related products (Chandler 1). In voice-overs, the gender stereotypes are reinforced and maintained. The program or advertisements makers use voice-overs that represent the products they are advertising and that fit the society’s stereotype of gender roles. In voice-overs, regarding authority male voice-overs are used. The males do voice-overs for products that are masculine in nature. The male voice-overs are also used in various product advertisements unlike their female counterparts who are mostly used in doing voice-overs for domestic products such as food, cleaning agents or female beauty products. The female voice-overs are often gentle, sensitive, and dependent or even submissive (Chandler 1). If men are used in advertising home products, they are often shown as being unable to handle the task. For example, a man may be unable to operate a washing machine and a woman comes over and shows him how to use it with so much ease. This advertisement although not breaking from tradition and having a man advertise at the end a woman comes and she is the one who is able to run the washing machine successfully thus reinforcing the traditional gender roles that homes are best run by women as men cannot be good homemakers. On the contrary, advertisements about men have male figures that work very hard. These males are often rewarded with a beer at the end of a day’s hard work.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Gender Stereotypes on Television specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The stereotype type being propagated in such an ad is that men work very hard outdoors or in businesses and thus need a reward at the end of the day. Some ads may also show a man who is successful as having many women and thus reinforces they notion that a man can have a woman as long as he works hard. This kind of ads objectify women (Limpinnian 1). We are in the 21st century and even though the role of women has shifted drastically from that of being care givers to professionals the stereotypes still persist in television advertisement. This may be attributed to the patriarchal society in which males dominant every aspect of life. Interesting enough children tend to learn these stereotypes from the advertisement they see on television. Girls are often used in fewer ads than boys are and in those advertisements that are used to portray the traditional roles of women. For example, the girls will be used in doll ads or in cooking fat ads to show that their role is in the home. Conversely, boys are portrayed in ads as being care free with toys cars and tough. This means that the boys and girls grow up to fit into gender behaviors shown in the advertisements (Bradway 1). Finally, the gender roles in voice-overs in television commercials and the type of products advertised by different genders all seem to reinforce the traditional stereotypes. The advertisers do not want to shift from gendered advertising because they would not want to upset the status quo in the society as the products they produce are produced with a target market in mind. Bradway, Jacquelyn. Stereotypical Gender Roles Portrayed in Childrens Television Commercials. Web. Chandler, Daniel. Television and Gender Roles. Web.Advertising Looking for essay on gender studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Craig, Steve. Men’s men and Women’s Women: How TV Commercials Portray Gender to Different Audiences. Web. Limpinnian, Danielle. The Portrayal of Men and Women in TV Ads. Web.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Effects on Saudi Arabia due to the events of the winter of 2010-2011 Research Paper

Effects on Saudi Arabia due to the events of the winter of 2010-2011 - Research Paper Example Saudi allies have fallen out of power in recent months, including former Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak. King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia responded quickly by distributing about $36 billion in state funds to youth throughout the country, hoping that money would satisfy any lurking desire to follow the examples of other Arab populations. The result, however, of the Arab uprisings has affected the population of Saudi Arabia, as demands for reform are being offered to the government while protests are emerging for different causes but with small turnouts. The list of demands includes lower taxes, better support for those unable to work, a solution to unemployment rates, higher minimum wages, and a cancellation of some restrictions on women (Bar’el). However, this is hardly radical, as this list calls for only a brief number of economic changes and very little social reform, even concerning women. What it lacks is any demand for governmental reform, regime change, civil liberties, or religious freedom. When compared to the revolutions of other Arab states, the issues in Saudi Arabia are of an entirely different nature. These demonstrations, however, have already been met with a violent response, urging them into the same categories of neighboring movements. Human Rights Watch claims that over 160 dissidents have been locked up since February. Protests were not limited to the usual Sunni Muslim citizens of Saudi Arabia, but also consisted of separate movements by Shia members of society who were speaking out against religious intolerance and the imprisonment of peaceful activists. As if reaffirming what the Shia Muslims were protesting, Saudi police made arrests in April that included a prominent intellectual leader of the Shia sect, Al-Saeed al-Majid. (HRW) The Saudi government has been forced into a position of vigilance, as it intends to swift put down any attempt to destabilize the country. Grand Mufti Sheikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah al-Sheikh, a top Muslim authority with close ties to the Saudi royal family, decried the uprisings as â€Å"chaotic acts† that â€Å"have come from the enemies of Islam and those who serve them†. (Saudi) This statement may refer to Western powers, although Saudi Arabia usually depends on the American military for security on its borders and throughout the region—especially in the Gulf. The Gulf itself is in many ways entirely separate from the greater Arab world in that it tends to look inward rather than out. While Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt all have been concerned with their own neighbors as well as what is happening within their borders, Saudi Arabia looks across the Gulf to Iran, a rising Persian Shia power that is the antithesis of the Arab Sunni monarchy in the Arabian Peninsula. The Grand Mufti’s quote may indeed be referring to Iran and the Shia sect as the enemies of Islam, thus supporting Saudi crackdown on Shia protests. Saudi Arabia has taken specific action outside its borders, and has arguably put more focus into its foreign policy over its domestic policy in reaction to the regional uprisings. Saudi Arabia’s neighbor, Bahrain, is a Sunni monarchy as well, but rules over a Shia Muslim majority. In Bahrain, the government faced a grave threat as its citizens sought to uproot the monarchy, and the Saudi

Monday, February 10, 2020

Management 100 assessment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Management 100 assessment - Essay Example To expedite training, several professional chefs and executive leadership will perform a series of training programs to familiarise the staff with Italian cooking procedures, ingredients lists and how to conform to Volare administrative guidelines. This report highlights the current political, legal, socio-cultural and technological environments in India as part of the business’ comprehensive SWOT analysis to determine whether India is actually a viable business opportunity. The report aims to identify the current business environment in India as well as offer recommendations as to how to proceed in this potential business expansion. India is a developing democracy led by the United Progressive Alliance, a regime in control by electoral process (accessdemocracy.org, 2007). This emerging democracy is similar to that of Australia in which the people are given significant freedoms and are not ruled by a governmental authority which demands subservience. Because there is no research evidence which suggests that there are on-going feuds between parties attempting to gain control over the country, Volare Restaurant will experience no business interruption due to violence or other negative consequences as a result of aggression. The government appears to be relatively stable overall. A great deal of India’s current economic success comes from foreign direct investment, suggesting a country which has very liberal policies regarding the expansion of foreign businesses into the country. India is a booming economy which has many sectors that are funded directly by different venture capitalists (Rangaswami, 2008), with no research evidence suggesting that government entities attempt to regulate the flow of international business into India. The lack of governmental regulation regarding new, international businesses represents a

Thursday, January 30, 2020

The Lord of the Flies Journal Entry Chapter 2 Essay Example for Free

The Lord of the Flies Journal Entry Chapter 2 Essay Day 1 Today’s events have left me thinking a bit. After we got back from exploring the island, Ralph assembled another meeting to spread our new discoveries. We realized everyone would not stop talking at once, so Ralph decided that whoever holds the conch has the right to talk and can only be interrupted by Ralph himself. Great idea at first, until that fat, useless oaf Piggy took it. He wouldn’t stop worrying and whining about getting rescued. Ralph said it himself, his dad’s a navy commander and will probably have us rescued in a few days. I don’t understand why he doesn’t have faith in Ralph like the others. After a while, Ralph brought up the great idea of making a fire in order to signal the rescuers we would be on the island. I knew there was little time to waste just sitting around, so I led the group into the forest to gather firewood. Upon gathering wood, I was the one who came up with the idea of using Fatty’s specs as burning glasses. Still, I had never imagined that keeping a fire burning would be so hard! Later, I humbly offered the choir to maintain the fire in shifts. Everything went well until that swine Piggy decided to speak out again. He kept repeating himself about how building a fire was a bad choice, even though he didn’t contribute squat to anything to begin with. Still, bigger problems arose to overshadow his stupidity. The fire we thought had been put out actually spread and began burning down a chunk of the forest. To top it off, we are now missing a little shrimp with a mulberry-colored scar on his face. I remember him as the one who wouldn’t stop scaring others by talking about the â€Å"beasties in the forest†. Stupid kids always getting themselves into trouble. As the leader of the hunters, I will definitely find him.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Unsustainable Debt Essay -- Economics

Unsustainable Debt Many ordinary citizens today in developed countries such as Canada acknowledge the abject poverty affecting citizens of various African countries and other undeveloped nations. However, exactly why these countries are in this position appears to be a mystery, despite many cash grants, relief efforts, and aid are delivered to these countries by various Western organizations amidst great media attention. In addition, it also seems natural that such undeveloped countries should have a net flow of capital moving towards them from wealthy industrialized nations such as Canada. On the contrary, a net flow of money has actually been directed towards the industrialized nations and various financial institutions from these impoverished countries[1]. This fact has failed to achieve much media coverage, if any. Figures on poverty levels of the early 1950's, following the Second World War, do not reflect those found today[2]. Undoubtedly poverty existed in the world. In fact, both the world's economy and the global GNP figure were far smaller in comparison to present day figures[3]. However, the fact that poverty existed in many countries did not imply that the inhabitants of those countries lacked basic necessities such as food, water, adequate shelter, and basic health services. This present situation of utter poverty is a result of the debts and debt service payments; an enormous burdens on these countries. Far greater percentages of capital and resources are spent each year on interest payments resulting from these debts by the debtor nations than on vital services such as education, health care, and basic social infrastructures[4]. Without the debts and debt service payments, such countrie... ...., 1991) 54. [8] John Serieux. Journeys Just Begun. (Canada: Renoult Publishing Co. Ltd., 2000) 28. [9] Cheryl Payer. Lend and Lost. (United Kingdom: Zeb Books Ltd., 1991) 27. [10] Roy Culpepper. Journeys Just Begun. (Canada: Renoult Publishing Co. Ltd., 2000) 32. [11] Roy Culpepper. Journeys Just Begun. (Canada: Renoult Publishing Co. Ltd., 2000) 33. [12] Gianni Vaggi. From Debt Crisis To Sustainable Development. (Great Britain: The Macmillan Press Ltd., 1993) 117. [13] UN Economic Commission for Latin America. Debt Adjustment and Renegotiations in Latin America. (USA: L. Rienner Publishers, 1986) 34. [14] John Loxley. Debt Disorder: External Financing for Development. (USA: Westview Press: 1986) 162. [15] John Serieux. Journeys Just Begun. (Canada: Renoult Publishing Co. Ltd., 2000) 29.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

The novel, Fahrenheit 451 reflects Ray Bradbury’s concern for decline of individual thought among his society

The novel, Fahrenheit 451 reflects Ray Bradbury's concern for decline of individual thought among his society. According to Captain Beatty, the head of the fire station â€Å"technology, mass exploitation, and minority pressure carried the trick† of replacing independent thought with conformity and finally leading to censorship (Bradbury, 58). Bradbury wants readers to notice these potential hazards in his fictional world and to beware of them in their own society. Technology in Fahrenheit 451 and today is seen as a great threat to individual thought. Even though the society that Bradbury depicts in the novel is very extreme, it warns the reader of the dangers of technology. Mildred, Montag's wife is taken over by the media and escapes form her life through the modern technologies. According to Clarisse, people no longer think or talk about anything important, â€Å"No, not anything. They name a lot of cars or swimming pools mostly and say how swell. But they all say the same things and nobody says anything different from anyone else† (Bradbury, 31). Similarly today many have turned into mindless human beings by sitting in front of the television or computer. The fast cars, loud music, advertisements and other forms of technological advances have created a lifestyle with too much stimulation in which no one has the time to think. (http://www. sparknotes. com/lit/451/themes. html) For example, Beatty explains that when zippers replace buttons â€Å"a man lacks just that much time to think while dressing at dawn† (Bradbury, 57) In Fahrenheit 451 minority pressure plays an important role in the decline of individual thought. This issue is still relevant today. For instance various pressure groups' campaigns against sex and violence on television or hard rock music have great influence on the types of programs and music people watch and listen to. Beatty explains to Montag that in the past pressure groups were influential in ending free expression, which eventually allowed the government to begin censoring its citizen. â€Å"Bigger the population, the more minorities. Don't step on the toes of the dog lovers, cat lovers, doctors, lawyers, merchants, chiefs, Mormons, Baptists, Unitarians, second-generation Chinese, Swedes, Italians, Germans, Texans†¦ (Bradbury, 57). Despite the obvious role of minority pressure in the decline of thought, the novel suggests mass exploitation to be the more serious problem. While minority pressure comes from a few members of the public, exploitation comes from the majority of the population. â€Å"Publishers, exploiters, broadcasters† sense the public's desire for relaxation and pleasure and exploit mindless types of entertainment for profit (http://ipl. ulis. ac. jp:8001/cgi-bin/ref/litcrit/litcrit. out. pl? ti=fah-198. This suggests that even more dangerous than the pressure groups is the public's desire for comfort and pleasure. Beatty's discussion of minority pressure is very explicit and clear however, his discussion of mass exploitation is more implicit and is scattered through ten pages. Mass exploitation speeds up the decline of thought even more directly than minority pressure. While pressure groups may manipulate people to avoid gaining knowledge, entertainment provides an alternative to any difficult thought (http://www. pinkmonkey. om/booknotes/monkeynotes. com) The types of entertainment exploited in Fahrenheit 451 are only produced for the public's relaxation and pleasure. The simplification of intellectual challenges and use of drugs are the most basic kinds of exploitation in the novel, which are still common in today's society. Beatty explains that intellectually challenging works were made easier so that they would appeal to a larger audience. This is similar to the way Hollywood producers have produced many simplified motion pictures of famous pieces of literature. Films like Romeo and Juliet and Gone with the Wind are more appealing to the new generation than reading the work itself. Another type of thought destroying mass exploitation in Fahrenheit 451 as well as the real world is the common drug use. When Mildred, overdoses by taking too much sleeping peels the medics, who replace her blood tell Montag, â€Å"We get these cases nine or ten a night. Got so many, starting a few years ago, we had the special machines built† (Bradbury, 15), which suggests that use of drugs is common. It is obvious to see that Bradbury recognizes drugs as a threat to individual thought. Montag smokes early on in the novel (Bradbury, 24), but as he becomes wiser his habit disappears, which shows that smoking was partially responsible for his ignorance in the beginning. Fahrenheit 451 demonstrates the author's extreme sensitivity to any attempts of restricting freedom of expression. He uses a dystopian setting to warn people of the dangers of technology, mass exploitation, and minority pressure and considers them as threats to individual thought. Moreover, Fahrenheit 451 is an excellent social critique novel, which contributes to positive changes in society.

Monday, January 6, 2020

The Go-Between - 1096 Words

The Go-Between The story ‘The Go-Between’ is a short story written by Ali Smith in 2009. The story was written for a collection of short stories written to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the United Nations’ adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The story is inspired by Article 13, which stands for the right to freedom of movement. In the story we read about a 33-year-old man who’s name is not revealed. The 33-year old man is a former microbiologist and has worked in a university. In the text we follow this man who gives the reader a directly insight in how it’s like to be an African refugee trying to cross the border between Morocco and Spain. The narrator of the story has tried several times to cross the border†¦show more content†¦I speak these, and also some others.† (P.3, ll.31-32) Even with all these qualifications it is not possible for the narrator to enter Europe. He is simply limited because of his origin and the color of his skin. The narrator feels that he and the other refugees are invisible and not wanted, it’s almost like he doesn’t exist. †A flower will be planted for every single person in Tangier. But not us. Not me. I’m not here...I’m speaking to you and I’m not really here.† (P.5, l.116-118) The refugees wish so desperately to enter Europe that the narrator describes it as the Spanish blindness. From the coast of Morocco you are able to see the lights from Spain and the Spanish border and all the refugees can think of is how much they want to leave Morocco and enter Europe. The refugees also pay all their money to a Network that promises them a boat, but the Network only takes advantage of the desperate refugees so the boat never arrives. †All the men in this building suffer from it, Spanish Blindness. All you can see is Spain. All you can think is Spain tonight, Spain tonight. They have paid all their money to the Network, and the Network has prom- ised a boat, maybe tonight. This boat never comes.† (P.4, l.73-75) The narrator claims that he does not have this Spanish blindness anymore, that belongs to the past and he actually says that he wishes he could go back, but that’s not a possibility, he have to move forward. †MyShow MoreRelatedFrom W.S . by L.P. Hartley1397 Words   |  6 PagesSpectator; Sketch, Observer and Time and Tide. He published his first book, a collection of short stories entitled Night Fears in 1924. His novel Eustace and Hilda (1947) was recognized immediately as a major contribution to English fiction; The Go-Between (1953) and The Hireling (1957) were later made into internationally successful films. In 1967 he published The Novelists Responsibility, a collection of critical essays. L.P. Hartley was a highly skilled narrator and all his tales areRead MoreThe Go-Between1085 Words   |  5 PagesThe Go-Between The story ‘The Go-Between’ is a short story written by Ali Smith in 2009. 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The author uses double narrative, the young Leos actions told by the older Leo, and it shows us how it has affected his life Firsttly, I’ll introduce the main characters, their functions and relationships, then I’ll give you a small summary of the story, followedRead MoreThe Go Between and Spies3835 Words   |  16 Pagesâ€Å"THE MAIN CHARACTERS IN THE GO-BETWEEN AND SPIES ARE SOCIALLY OPRRESSED ARE SOCIALLY OPPRESSSED† How far do you agree with this statement? Social Oppression is a main theme explored throughout the two tragic novels, The Go-Between and Spies. Throughout the novels, L.P. Hartley and Michael Frayn successfully convey the idea, through the use of their main characters, the effects of social oppression and class divide. Using many techniques they show how class and oppression had power over the peopleRead MoreBook Report on the Go Between1676 Words   |  7 PagesThe Go-between By L.P. 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The reason why we have chosenRead MoreThe Go-Between And Lolita Are Two Novels That Challenged966 Words   |  4 PagesThe Go-Between and Lolita are two novels that challenged childhood innocence and sexual experience. Childhood innocence is tested by child life experiences. Innocence can be depicted as the quality of ignorance. In this case, childhood innocence is portrayed through the ignorance of sex and maturation. Sexual Relationships between adolescents and adults are taboo and immoral. These relations usually have undesirable consequences for both parties. This paper will focus on the similarities and differencesRead MoreSelf Growth Happens Between Letting Go And Moving On1170 Words   |  5 PagesSelf-Growth Happens Between Letting Go and Moving On By Yol Swan | Submitted On September 22, 2012 Recommend Article Article Comments Print Article Share this article on Facebook Share this article on Twitter Share this article on Google+ Share this article on Linkedin Share this article on StumbleUpon Share this article on Delicious Share this article on Digg Share this article on Reddit Share this article on Pinterest Expert Author Yol Swan In the Jewish tradition, the New Year is receivedRead More Ways Hartley and Frayn present Childhood in The Go-Between and Spies1269 Words   |  6 PagesIn the Go-Between, Hartley presents the world of children and childhood through the first person narrative (from the viewpoints of the young and old Leo), Leo’s vivid imagination, the themes of growing up and self-awareness, the conflict between the child and adult world, and the portrayal of Leo as a school boy. Firstly, the writer portrays the world of children through the first person narrative which encapsulates young Leo’s fresh, spontaneous optimism and hope towards the dawning of a newRead MoreThe Correlation Between Influencing Organization Culture And Leaderships Go Hand And Hand787 Words   |  4 Pages The correlation between influencing organization culture and leaderships go hand and hand. Organizational culture refers to the beliefs and values that exist in an organization and to the beliefs of the staff and the foreseen value of their work that will influence their work ethic. Schein (1992, 2004) defines the culture of a group or organization as shared assumptions and beliefs about the world and their place in it, the nature of time and space, human nature, and human relationships. (pg.